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409 

twist as that of the Tara tores by filling the triangular spaces between 
the fillets with lead or some other ductile metal. 

When the Tara tores were first described to the Academy, it was 
believed, both by antiquaries and jewellers, that the leaves or ribbons 
of which they were composed were soldered together at the inner edges, 
and then twisted; but, after the most careful examination of this Tore, 
it is quite apparent that the process of tore-making was as I have de- 
scribed it. 

Although no question has ever been raised with respect to the pro- 
priety of restoring with their fragments, fossils, and also ancient statuary, 
fictile ware, or other objects of antique art; and although some might 
object to the restoration of articles in metal work when found in frag- 
ments, bent, or otherwise altered from their original condition — common 
sense, taste, the interests of antiquarian and ethnological science, as well 
as the example of all public collections, and the necessity for preservation 
of the articles themselves, point out the advisability of restoring, when 
possible, articles recently cut up with a cold chisel on a smith's anvil, or 
crushed into pieces iu a jeweller's workshop. 

The Secretary read a letter from Dr. E. Keller, of Zurich, returning 
thanks for hia election as an Honorary Member of the Academy. 

The following donations were presented to the Academy:— 

A portrait of Carolan, the harper ; presented, through the Rev. Dr. 
Todd, by the Rev. Charles TisdaU, D. D. 

Duplicate photographs of the Sheshkill, and of three Irish croziers ; 
presented by the Commissioners of the Scienee and Art Department of 
the Committee of Council on Education. 

A copy of the " Rhind Papyri," edited by Samuel Birch, LL. D. ; 
presented by David Brewer, Esq., through Dr. Birch, of the British Mu- 
seum. 

The thanks of the Academy were returned to the donors. 

STATED GENERAL MEETING, Monday, Novembeb 30, 1863. 

The Yebt Rev. Charles Graves, D. D., President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following communication from the Rev. 
Professor Hattghton, accompanied by letters from the Rev. Dr. Robin- 
son, of Armagh, and Mr. Mettam, of Trinity College Magnetic Observa- 
tory : — 

On the Non- Cyclonic Character of the Storm of October 29, 1863. 

Trinity College, Dublin, Nov. 30, 1863. 

Dear Dr. Reeves, — As Mr. Foot's paper on the storm of the 29th 
October, during which the ironclad "Prince Consort" nearly foun- 
dered at sea, appears to have attracted the notice of some meteorolo- 
gists, I think it may prove of some interest to lay before the Academy two 
letters, one from the Rev. Dr. Robinson, and the other from Mr. Mettam, 
who keeps the records of the Magnetical Observatory of Trinity College. 



410 

These letters give an account of the observations on the wind made at 
Armagh and Dublin during the gale, and it appears to me that they 
completely establish the non-cyclonic character of the storm of the 29th 
October. 

The wind in Dublin blew steadily from the S. W. during and long 
after the gale ; while in Armagh (as appears from Dr. Robinson's letter, 
or from the accompanying drawing, which I have made to represent the 
observations) it seems to have shifted through 1 32° from 1 a. m., to 1 p.m. 



The gale in Dublin was at its height at 1 1 a. m., when the wind tra- 
velled at the rate of 16 miles per hour. 

Perpendiculars drawn to the directions of the wind at this hour, 
from Dublin, Armagh, and Ballinasloe, nearly intersect in Lough 
Melvin (A), in the county of Fermanagh, — a circumstance which, at 
first sight, would seem to prove that the storm was a Cyclone. But if 
a line BA be drawn, parallel to the bisector of the angle between the 
wind directions of Armagh at 10 A. M. and 1 p. m., it is well known that 
the gale, if a Cyclone, must have travelled along the line BA. 



411 



If this had been the case, the centre of the storm should have passed 

near Ballinasloe, where the wind should have changed through 180°- 

As this supposition is completely at variance with the facts observed at 

Ballinasloe, we are entitled to conclude that the gale was not a Cyclone. 

I am yours sincerely, 

Samuel Haughton. 
To the Rev. Wm. Seeves, B. J)., See. R.I. A. 

"Atmagh Observatory, Nov. 19, 1863. 

" Hy hear Hatjghton, — I see in the ' Irish Times' that you com- 
municated to the Academy an account of the gale of the 29th last at 
Ballinasloe, where the direction of the wind seems to have been invari- 
able. That was not the case here, as you will see by the annexed record 
of my anemometer. 

"From noon, on the 28th, the direction changed against the sun till 
10a.m. on the 29th; then came back till 10 p.m. It was very strong here. 



October 28. 


Direction. 


October 29. 


Direction. 


1 
October 30. ' Direction. 


1 1 A. M-, 


12-2° 




0* 


. . . ! 49" 


Noon, 


122 






16 


. . . ! 62 


1 


122 






69 


. . . i 63 


2 


114.5 




. . i 76 


... I 67 


3 


108 




. . i 78 ] . . . j 62 


4 


99 




. . i 82 ... I .63 


5 


75 






77 


... 60 


e 


70 






78 


... 53 


7 


51 






73 


... 61 


8 


40 






73 


. . . 47 


9 


39 






74 


. . . ! 53 


10 


35 






65 


... 56 


11 


29 






66 


. . . i 48 


29 1 12 


19 






52 ! . . . ; 47 


A.M. 










1 


14 






51 ... j 48 


2 









41 . . . 


53 


3 


329 






40 




59 


4 


336 






37 




60 


5 


329 






38 




61 


a 


344 






38 




63 


7 


835 






37 




65 


8 


324 






34 


. . . 


69 


9 


298 






38 


. . . 72 


10 


297 






44 


.... 71 



" The graduation reads from = south through 90 = west, 1 80 = north 
270 = east. The time is the mid epoch between eaehnumber of the first 
column and the preceding, i. e. the direction opposite ll b is that at 10 h 
30 m . " YourB ever, 

" T. B,. Robinson. 

" To the Rev. S. Houghton." 



412 

"22, Trinity College, Nov. 21, 1863. 

*' Bear Sir, — I send you the direction of wind every second hour 
from the commencement of the gale on 28th October, until it passed 
away, on the 30th, 1863, and find on reference that the gale was in 
Dublin October 29. 

" "Wind, October 28, 1863, commenced to blow from S. E. at 6 a.m. j 
8a.m.,S. S.E.; 10 a.m., S. S.W.; 12,noon, S.W.; 2and4p.M., S."W.; 
6p.m.,S.S.W.; 8 p.m., S.W.; 10 p. m. and 12 midnight, &"W. 

"October 29th, 2 and 4 a. m., S. S.W.; 6, 8, and 10 a. m., 12, 
noon, 2,* 4, 6, 8, and 10 p. m., 12, midnight, wind S."W\ 

" October 30th, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 a. m., and 12 noon, 2 and 4 p. m., wind 
S,"W. ; 6 and 8 p. m., "W. S. W. ; 10 p. m. and 12 midnight, wind S.W. 

"Tours faithfully, 

u Johjj" Mbttam. 

" To the Jtev. Professor Houghton" 

J. B. Jukes, Esr^., read a paper — 

Ojt Crannoges is Lough Rea.-j- By G. Henry Kinahan, Geological 
Survey of Ireland. 

The crannoges to be described in this paper occur in Lough Rea, which 
is situated in the parishes of Loughrea and KUieenadeema, barony of 
Loughrea, county of Galway, Sheet 105 of the Townland Ordnance 
Survey, and at the east margin of Sheet 115 of the one-inch Map of 
Ireland. 

Atthe south-east ofthe lake is a group of rocks, called "Stone Islands, 
South;" at the east, an island, called " Stone Island, North;" atthe 
north-east are five islands, called "Barrack, Long, Middle, Bush, and 
Switch Islands;" at the north-west, "Blake's Island;" near the west 
shore, " Reed's and Shore Islands ;*' at the south-west, " Ash Island ;" 
and about 200 yards from the south shore is "Island M'Coo." The 
last four have been "found to be crannoges, or artificial islands. 

On looking at the Ordnance Map (Galway, Sheet 105), it will be 
seen that within a mile of the lake there are twenty-one ratks or ra- 
hems, all of which, except two, are in the vicinity of the crannoges, two 
of the largest being in the immediate neighbourhood of Shore Island,! 

* From 11$ a.m. wind = 16 miles per hour. 

fin Hardiman's "History of Galway" we find the ancient name ofthe town of Loughrea 
was Battle Riogh ; from which it would appear that Rea is a. corruption for Kiogh, and. that 
the name of the lake ought to be Lough Riogh, that is, the Royal Lake, or The Lake of 
the Kings. This name may have been so called from one of the crannoges having heen 
the residence of the kings or chiefs of the sept that inhabited the district thereabouts ; or 
perhaps it is much more modern, the town having been called ltaillie Riogh, after MacWiU 
Ham Eighter (Sir William or Ulick De Burgo), one of its founder?, who declared himself 
King of Connaght, and the lake Lough Kiogh from the same. For neither of these con- 
jectures is there documentary evidence ; but the former seems to be the most probable, as 
in the latter case the lake would naturally have been called Bailleriogh Lough, or, to mo- 
dernize it, Ballyrea Lough. 

$One lies between Lord Dunlo's new house and Shora Island; the other, called 
Knocknaaop, a little west of Lord Dunlo's hoase. 



liv 



Verrier. See Le Verrier. 

Via, Johannes a, Life of SS. Marinus and 

Anianusby, 295. 
Vice-Presidents. See Academy. 
Vignoles, Eev. Charley donation of, 182. 
Villars, the Marquis de, Memoirs of the 

Court of Spain by, 224. 
Viterbo, Joannes de, literary frauds of, 355. 
Vitus, Stephanus. See "White, Stephen. 
Vrolick, William, death of, 485. 



Wall, Charles W., D. D., death of, 303 ; 
obituary notice of, 304. 

Waller, John F., LL. D., member of Coun- 
cil (Com. of Polite Lit.) in 1862, 117 ; 
in 1863, 305; in 1864, 487; Vice- 
President, 493. 

Warren, James W., elected member, 476. 

Washington, Captain, B. N., 203. 

Waterton, Edmund, elected Member, 305. 

Wentworth, Lord, public services of, 52. 

Westropp, Hodder M., on Fanaux de Ci- 
mitieres and round towers, 194 ; on the 
pre-Christian cross, 322. 

Whately, the Moat Bev. Archbishop, death 
of, 485 ; obituary notice of, 486. 

White, Stephen, original letter of, to Father 
John Colgan, 33 ; works by, 32 ; me- 
moir of, 29 ; character of, 30, 31. 

Whitechapel, old church of, 286. 

Whitshed, Captain St. Vincent Hawkins, 
donation of, 471. 



Wilde, Sir William R., member of Council 
(Committee of Antiq.) in 1862, 117 ; 
in 1863, 305 ; in 1864, 487 ; Vice- 
President, 305; Secretary of Foreign 
Correspondence, 487; on antique gold 
ornaments found in Ireland prior to 1 747, 
82 ; catalogue of gold articles in the 
Museum, 89; description of a crannog 
in the county of Cavan, 274 ; on anti- 
quities presented by the Board of Works, 
324 ; on the gold articles added under 
the treasure-trove grant, 406 ; on an 
ancient Irish shield, 487 ; on the shrine 
of St. Manchan, 493 ; presentations 
through, 153, 289, 428. 

Wilkie, Henry W., elected Member, 60. 

Wingfield, Sir Bobert, account of the dis- 
pute for precedency at the Council of 
Constance, 368. 

Wroxeter, or Uriconium, animal remains 
found at, 473. 



Yeates, George, death of, 303 ; obituary 

notice of, 304. 
Youghal, collegiate church of, 440. 



Zinc bloom, or bliithe, 19 ; hydrocarbo- 
nates and silicates of, 5 ; chemical com- 
position of silicates of, 20, molecular 

changes produced in, by heat, 55. 



CORRIGENDA. 



Page 409, for Dr. R. Keller, read Dr. F. Keller. 
„ «7, line 23, for ^tnll, read goitt. 
„ 45$ „ 28, for Blythe, read Blyth. 
„ 487, „ 10, for George B. Stoney, read George J. Stoney. 
„ 487, Com. Pol. Lit, insert Rev. George Longfield, B. D. 



END OF VOLUME VIII.